André Sapir

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(January 2017)
Mobile phone: +32 484 593 195
E-mail addresses:
Senior Fellow, Bruegel
University Professor, Université libre de Bruxelles. Teaching at the Solvay
Brussels School of Economics and Management and the Institute for
European Studies.
Research Fellow, Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), London
Chair of the High Level Expert Group appointed by the Belgian Finance
Minister to make recommendations on The Future of the Belgian Financial
Sector, 2015-2016
Chair (and during a period Vice-Chair) of the Advisory Scientific Committee
(ASC) and Member of the General Board, European Systemic Risk Board
(ESRB), Frankfurt, 2011-2015
Member of the Economic Advisory Group to European Commission President
José Manuel Barroso, 2005-2010
Economic Adviser to European Commission President Romano Prodi, 2001-
Chairman, High-Level Study Group appointed by President Prodi to review all
EU economic policies, 2002-2003
Executive President, Group of Economic Analysis to the President of the
European Commission, 2002-2004
Economic Adviser to the Director-General for Economic and Financial Affairs,
European Commission, 1990-1993 and 1995-2001
Visiting Professor, Advanced Studies Program in International Economic
Policy Research, Kiel Institute of World Economics, 2001-2002
Visiting Professor, College of Europe, 1995-1996 and 1996-1997

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Visiting Scholar, International Monetary Fund, 1998 and 2014
President, Institute of European Studies, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1992
Visiting Professor, Université catholique de Louvain, 1988-1989
Visiting Professor, Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, 1986
Visiting Professor, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 1984-1985
Senior Research Fellow, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), 1983-
Associate Professor of Economics, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1980-1986
Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1977
Member of the Advisory Board, King Baudouin Foundation
Member of the International Advisory Council: European Policy Centre
(EPC), Vienna Institute for Comparative Economic Studies (WII W), Centro
Studi Luca d’Agliano (Torino) and Swedish Institute for European Policy
Studies (SIEPS)
Member of the Euro-50 Group
Member of the Editorial Board, World Trade Review
Associate Editor, Empirica — Journal of European Economics
Member of the Editorial Advisory Board, Open Economies Review and The
World Economy
Member, Royal Academy of Belgium for Science and the Arts, elected in 2012
Prix Emile de Laveleye, Royal Academy for Science and the Arts of Belgium,
Member, Academia Europaea, elected in 2010
Tinbergen Lecture, Royal Netherlands Economic Association, 2010

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Chaire Francqui, Université de Namur, 1992-93; Facultés Universitaires
Saint-Louis, 2002-03.
Prix des Alumni, 1985 (awarded every five years to the best Belgian academic
economist below the age of 40)
Phi Beta Kappa honor society, elected in 1977
CRB Graduate Fellowship, Belgian American Educational Foundation, 1973
PhD Fellowship, FNRS (Belgian National Science Foundation), 1973-77
Ph.D., Economics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore (USA), 1977
M.A., Econometrics, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1973
B.A., Economics, Université libre de Bruxelles, 1972
Date of birth: June 13, 1950
Marital status: Married to Debarati Guha
Citizenship: Belgium

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A. Books and Monographs
EU to DO 2015-2019: Memos to the New EU Leadership, Bruegel, Brussels,
2014 (editor and co-author).
EU-IMF Assistance to Euro Area Countries: An Early Assessment, Bruegel
Blueprint No. 19, Bruegel, Brussels, 2013 (co-author with Jean Pisani-Ferry
and Guntram Wolff).
Completing the Euro: A Roadmap Towards Fiscal Union in Europe, Report
of the “Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa Group”, Notre Europe, Paris, 2012 (co
author with 8 other scholars).
An Evaluation of IMF Surveillance of the Euro Area, Bruegel Blueprint No.
14, Bruegel, Brussels, 2011 (co-author with Jean Pisani-Ferry and Guntram
Global Currencies for Tomorrow: A European Perspective, Bruegel Blueprint
No. 13, Bruegel, Brussels, 2011 (co-author with 7 other economists).
Whither Growth in Central and Eastern Europe? Policy Lessons for an
Integrated Europe, Bruegel Blueprint No. 11, Bruegel, Brussels, 2010 (co
author with 9 other economists).
A European Mechanism for Sovereign Debt Crisis Resolution: A Proposal,
Bruegel Blueprint No. 10, Bruegel, Brussels, 2010 (co-author with Francois
Gianviti, Anne Krueger, Jean Pisani-Ferry and Jürgen von Hagen).
Europe’s Economic Priorities 2010-2015: Memos to the New Commission,
Bruegel, Brussels, 2009 (editor and co-author).
Beyond the WTO? An Anatomy of EU and US Preferential Trade
Agreements, Bruegel Blueprint No. 7, Bruegel, Brussels, 2009 (co-author with
Henrik Horn and Petros C. Mavroidis).
Higher aspirations: An agenda for reforming European universities, Bruegel
Blueprint No. 5, Bruegel, Brussels, 2008 (co-author with Philippe Aghion,
Mathias Dewatripont and Andreu Mas-Colell).
Coming of age: report on the euro area, Bruegel Blueprint No. 4, Bruegel,
Brussels, 2008 (co-author with Jean Pisani-Ferry, Philippe Aghion, Marek
Belka, Lars Heikensten and Jürgen von Hagen).
Fragmented Power: Europe and the Global Economy, Bruegel, Brussels,
2007 (editor and co-author).

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Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics 2005, Europe: Doha,
Monterrey, and Johannesburg, Are We on Track? World Bank Publications,
Washington (DC), 2005 (co-editor with Francois Bourguignon and Boris
An Agenda for a Growing Europe: The Sapir Report, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 2004 (co-author with Philippe Aghion, Giuseppe Bertola,
Martin Hellwig, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Dariusz Rosati, José Vifials, Helen Wallace
and Marco Buti, Mario Nava, Peter M. Smith). Italian translation published by
Societa editrice II Mulino, Bologna, 2004.
Economic Policy-Making in the European Union, Proceedings of the First
Four Meetings of the Group of Economic Analysis, European Commission,
2003 (co-editor with Mario Nava).
EMU and Economic Policy in Europe: The Challenge of the Early Years,
Edward Elgar, Aldershot, 2002 (co-author and co-editor with Marco Buti).
Market Integration, Regionalism and the Global Economy, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1999 (co-editor with Richard Baldwin, Daniel
Cohen and Anthony Venables).
Trade and Jobs in Europe: Much Ado about Nothing?, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 1999 (co-author and co-editor with Mathias Dewatripont and
Khalid Sekkat).
Economic Policy in EMU, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998 (co-author
and co-editor with Marco Buti). Italian translation published by Societa
editrice il Mulino, Bologna, 1999.
Flexible Integration: Towards a More Effective and Democratic Europe,
Monitoring European Integration 6, Centre for Economic Policy Research,
London, 1995 (co-author with Mathias Dewatripont, Francesco Giavazzi,
Jürgen von Hagen, Ian Harden, Torsten Persson, Gerard Roland, Howard
Rosenthal and Guido Tabellini).
European Policies on Competition, Trade and Industry – Conflict and
Complementarities, Edward Elgar, Aldershot, 1995 (co-editor with Pierre
Buigues and Alexis Jacquemin).
Trade Theory and Economic Reform – North, South and East, Basil
Blackwell, Oxford, 1991 (co-editor with Jaime de Melo).
The European Internal Market: Trade and Competition, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 1989 (co-editor with Alexis Jacquemin).
Europe-United States Trade Relations, University of Chicago Press, Chicago,
1988 (co-editor with Robert Baldwin and Carl Hamilton).

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Economic Impact of Generalized Tariff Preferences, Thames Essay No. 49,
Gower Publishing, London, 1987 (co-author with Rolf Langhammer).

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B. Articles & Book Chapters
Europe after Brexit: A Proposal for a Continental Partnership, Bruegel, 2016
(with Jean Pisani-Ferry, Norbert Röttgen, Paul Tucker and Guntram Wolff).
Dealing with EMU Heterogeneity: National versus European Institutional
Reforms. In Francesco Caselli, Mario Centeno and José Tavares (eds.), After
the Crisis: Reform, Recovery, and Growth in Europe, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 2016.
Belgium. Chapter 4 in Dirk Schoenmaker and Nicolas Véron (eds.) European
Banking Supervision: The First Eighteen Months, Bruegel Blueprint,
Brussels, 2016.
The internationalization process of firms: From exports to FDI. Journal of
International Economics 99 (2016) 16-30 (with Paola Conconi and Maurizio
The Eurozone Needs Less Heterogeneity. In Richard Baldwin and Francesco
Giavazzi (eds.), How to Fix Europe’s Monetary Union: Views of Leading
Economists. A eBook, CEPR Press, London, 2016.
One Market, Two Monies: The European Union and the United Kingdom.
Bruegel Policy Brief 2016/01, Bruegel, Brussels (with Guntram Wolff).
EU Trade Policy. Chapter 14 in Harald Badinger and Volker Nitsch (eds.),
Routledge Handbook of the Economics of European Integration, Routledge,
London, 2015.
Reviving Growth in the Euro Area: Demand Management or Structural
Reform Policy? In Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Economic Conference,
Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 2015.
Euro-Area Governance: What to Reform and How to Do It?. Bruegel Policy
Brief 2015/01, Bruegel, Brussels (with Guntram Wolff).
Dial PTAs for Peace: The Influence of Preferential Trading Agreements on
Litigation between Trading Partners. Journal of World Trade 49 (2015) 351-
372 (with Petros Mavroidis).
The Long Road towards the European Single Market. Bruegel Working Paper
2015/03, Bruegel, Brussels (with Mario Mariniello and Alessio Terzi).
Europe’s Macroprudential policy Framework in Light of the Banking Union.
In Dirk Schoenmaker (ed.), Macroprudentialism. A eBook, CEPR
Press, London, 2014.
Still the Right Agenda for Europe? The Sapir Report Ten Years On. Journal of
Common Market Studies, 52 (Sl, 2014) 57-73.

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Financial Crises under Two European Monetary Regimes: EMU vs. EMS. In
Ivo Maes and Frank Moss (eds.), Progress through Crisis? Proceedings of the
Conference for the 20th Anniversary of the Establishment of the European
Monetary Institute, European Central Bank, Frankfurt, 2014.
The Great Transformation: Memo to the Incoming EU Presidents. Bruegel
Policy Brief 2014/04, Bruegel, Brussels (with Guntram Wolff).
Memo to Commissioner for Trade. In André Sapir (ed.) EU to DO 2015-2019:
Memos to the New EU Leadership, Bruegel, Brussels, 2014 (with Suparna
What Abenomics Means for EU-Japan Trade Relations. In Guntram Wolff
and Masahiko Yoshii (eds.), Japan and the European Union in the Global
Economy, Bruegel Blueprint 22, 2014.
Policies for Manufacturing EU Growth. In Reinhilde Veugelers (ed.),
Manufacturing Europe’s Future, Bruegel Blueprint 21, 2014 (with Reinhilde
The Long Haul: Managing Exit from Financial Assistance. Bruegel Policy
Contribution 2014/03, Bruegel, Brussels (with Zsolt Darvas and Guntram
Can Border Carbon Taxes Fit Into the Global Trade Regime? Bruegel Policy
Brief 2013/06, Bruegel, Brussels (with Henrik Horn).
The Neglected Side of Banking Union: Reshaping Europe’s Financial System.
Bruegel Policy Contribution 2013/03, Bruegel, Brussels (with Guntram
Fiscal Rules: Timing is Everything. Bruegel Policy Brief 2012/03, Bruegel,
Brussels (with Benedicta Marzinotto).
The International Monetary System at a Crossroads: Opportunities and Risks
for the Euro. In Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Nicolas Véron and Guntram Wolff
(eds.), Transatlantic Economic Challenges in an Era of Growing
Multipolarity, Peterson Institute for International Economics and Bruegel,
Washington, DC and Brussels, 2012 (with Ignazio Angeloni).
What Kind of Banking Union? Bruegel Policy Contribution 2012/12, Bruegel,
Brussels (with Jean Pisani-Ferry, Nicolas Véron and Guntram Wolff).
A European Mediterranean Economic Area to Kick-Start Economic
Development. In Sven Biscop, Rosa Balfour and Michael Emerson (eds.), An
Arab Springboard for EU Foreign Policy? Egmont Paper No. 54, Egmont
Institute, Brussels.
The Messy Rebuilding of Europe. Bruegel Policy Brief 2012/01, Bruegel,
Brussels (with Jean Pisani-Ferry and Guntram Wolff).

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Regulation and Competition in EU Banking: Before, During, and After the
Crisis. In Stijn Claessens, Douglas Evanoff, George Kaufman and Laura
Kodres (eds.) Macroprudential Regulatory Policies: The New Road to
Financial Stability? World Scientific Publishing Co, New Jersey, 2011.
Europe after the Crisis: Less or More Role for Nation States in Money and
Finance? Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 27(2011) 608-619.
European Integration at the Crossroads: A Review Essay on the 50th
Anniversary of Bela Balassa’s Theory of Economic Integration. Journal of
Economic Literature XLIX (2011) 1200-1229.
What Kind of Fiscal Union? Bruegel Policy Brief 2011/06, Bruegel, Brussels
(with Benedicta Marzinotto and Guntram Wolff).
Eastern European Lessons for the Southern Mediterranean. Bruegel Policy
Contribution 2011/08, Bruegel, Brussels (with Georg Zachmann).
The Political Economy of Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation and
Competition: A (Unofficial) View from Europe. In Simon J. Evenett and
Robert M. Stern (eds.) Systemic Implications of Transatlantic Regulatory
Cooperation and Competition World Scientific Publishing Co, New Jersey,
Crisis and the Governance of the Euro Area. In Loukas Tsoukalis and Janis A.
Emmanouilidis (eds.) The Delphic Oracle on Europe: Is there a Future for the
European Union? Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011.
A Comprehensive Approach to the Euro-Area Debt Crisis. Bruegel Policy Brief
2011/02, Bruegel, Brussels (with Jean Pisani-Ferry and Zsolt Darvas).
EU and US Preferential Trade Agreements: Deepening or Widening of VVT()
Commitments? In Kyle Bagwell and Petros Mavroidis (eds.) Preferential
Trade Agreements: A Law and Economics Analysis, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, 2011 (with Henrik Horn and Petros Mavroidis).
Boosting Innovation in Europe. Intereconomics — Review of European
Economic Policy 45 (2010) 269-273 (with Mathias Dewatripont, Bruno van
Pottelsberghe and Reinhilde Veugelers).
Rethinking Macroeconomics and Europe’s Economic Governance in Light of
the Crisis. Revue bancaire et financiére/Bank- en Financiewezen 2010/4
Beyond the VYTO? An Anatomy of EU and US Preferential Trade Agreements.
The World Economy 33 (2010) 1565-1588 (with Henrik Horn and Petros C.
Mavroidis). Reprinted as Chapter 8 in D. Greenaway (ed.) The World
Economy — Global Trade Policy 2010, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2011.

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Crisis Resolution in the Euro Area: An Alternative to the European Monetary
Fund. Intereconomics — Review of European Economic Policy 45 (2010) 72
75 (with Jean Pisani-Ferry).
Banking Crisis Management in the EU: An Early Assessment. Economic
Policy 62 (2010) 341-373 (with Jean Pisani-Ferry).
Government Size and Output Volatility: Should We Forsake Automatic
Stabilization? In Marco Buti, Servaas Deroose, Vitor Gaspar and Joao
Nogueira Martins (eds.) The Euro: The First Decade, Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, 2010 (with Xavier Debrun and Jean Pisani-Ferry).
Capeando el temporal: La gobernanza en la zona euro en los Buenos tiempos y
en los turbulentos. In Federico Steinberg (ed.), El euro al rescate de Europa
Real Instituto Elcano and Marcial Pons, Madrid, 2010 (with Jean Pisani-
The Governance and Performance of Universities: Evidence for Europe and
the US. Economic Policy 61 (2010) 1-53 (with Philippe Aghion, Mathias
Dewatripont, Caroline Hoxby and Andreu Mas-Colell).
United States Subsidies on Upland Cotton Recourse to Article 21.5 by Brazil,
WT/DS267/AB/RW (2 June 2008). World Trade Review (2010) 1-19 (with
William J. Davey).
The Crisis of Global Governance. In A. Hemerijck, B. Knapen and E. van
Dooren (eds.) After Shocks: Economic Crisis and Institutional Choice,
Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2009.
Euro Area: Ready for the Storm? In Jean Pisani-Ferry and Adam S. Posen
(eds.), The Euro at Ten: The Next Global Currency? Peterson Institute for
International Economics and Bruegel, Washington, DC and Brussels, 2009
(with Jean Pisani-Ferry).
The Soft Drinks case: The WTO and regional agreements. World Trade
Review (2009) 5-23 (with William J. Davey).
An Obsolete Model? Growth and Specialisation in the Italian Economy. In M.
Buti (ed.) Italy in EMU, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 (with Riccardo Faini).
A European Recovery Programme. Bruegel Policy Brief 2008/09, Bruegel,
Brussels (with Jean Pisani-Ferry and Jakob von Weizsäcker).
What Economic and Social Model for Europe? A Debate with Philippe Herzog
published in English and French. Collection Penser l’Europe, Centre d’Analyse
et de Prévision, Paris, 2008.
Eight Potential Roadblocks to Smooth EU-China Economic Relations. In
Anders Aslund and Marek Dabrowski (eds.), Challenges of Globalization:

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Imbalances and Growth, Peterson Institute for International Economics,
Washington, DC, 2008 (with Jean Pisani-Ferry).
L’Europa e l’economia globale. II Mulino 57 (2008) 295-308.
Subsidization, Price Suppression, and Expertise: Causation and Precision in
Upland Cotton. World Trade Review (2008) 183-209 (with Joel Trachtman).
Mexico — Antidumping Measures on Rice. Don’t Ask Me No Questions and I
Won’t Tell No Lies. World Trade Review (2008) 305-323 (with Petros
The EU and the Governance of Globalisation. International Journal of Public
Policy 3 (2008) 118-139 (with Alan Ahearne, Jean Pisani-Ferry and Nicolas
Fiscal Policy in Europe: The Past and the Future of EMU Rules from the
Perspective of Musgrave and Buchanan. In B. Eichengreen, M. Landesmann
and D. Stiefel (eds.), The European Economy in an American Mirror,
Routledge, London, 2008 (with Marco Buti).
The Political Economy of Services Trade Liberalization: A Case for
International Regulatory Cooperation? Oxford Review of Economic Policy 23
(2007) 367-391 (with Bernard Hoekman and Aaditya Mattoo). Reprinted as
Chapter 25 in G. C. Hufbauer and K. Suominen (eds.) The Economics of Free
Trade, Volume I, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2012.
Why Reform Europe’s Universities. Bruegel Policy Brief 2007/04, Bruegel,
Brussels (with Philippe Aghion, Mathias Dewatripont, Caroline Hoxby and
Andreu Mas-Colell).
European Strategies for Growth. In M. Artis and F. Nixson (eds.), Economics
of the European Union, Third Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.
Global Governance: An Agenda for Europe. Bruegel Policy Brief 2006/07,
Bruegel, Brussels (with Alan Ahearne, Jean Pisani-Ferry and Nicolas Véron).
Last Exit to Lisbon. Bruegel Policy Brief 2006/02, Bruegel, Brussels (with
Jean Pisani-Ferry).
La globalisation et la réforme des modéles sociaux européens. Reflets et
Perspectives de la Vie Economique XLV (2006) 117-130.
Ultima fermata per Lisbona. Economia Italiana (2006) 201-231 (with Jean
Globalisation and the Reform of European Social Models. Journal of
Common Market Studies 44 (2006) 369-390.
Is the € Ready for a Global Role? Europe’s World 2 (2006) 56-61.

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Un programa para una Europa en crecimento: El informe Sapir. Papeles de
Economia Espafiola 107 (2006) 2-12 (with the other members of the Sapir
Globaliseringen och de europeiska sociala modellernas reformering. In S.
Gustavsson, L. Oxelheim and N. Wahl (eds.), En gränslös europeiska
arbetsmarknad?, Europaperspektiv 2006, Santérus Förlag, Stockholm, 2006.
Politiche Sociale Efficaci al Passo della Globalizzazione. II Mulino 55 (2005)
Un Modello Obsoleto? Crescita e Specializzone dell’Economia Italiana. In T.
Boeri, R. Faini, A. Ichino, G. Pisauro and C. Scarpa (eds.), Oltre il Declino,
Societa editrice II Mulino, Bologna, 2005 (with Riccardo Faini).
An Agenda for A Growing Europe: The Sapir Report. Special Symposium on
The Report of the Sapir Group, Regional Studies 39 (2005) 958-965 (with the
other members of the Sapir Group).
Structural Reforms and Economic Growth in the EU: Is Lisbon the Right
Agenda? In Growth and Stability in the EU: Perspectives from the Lisbon
Agenda, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, Vienna, 2004.
Political Cycles, Fiscal Deficits and Output Spillovers in Europe. Pubic Choice
111 (2002) 195-205 (with Khalid Sekkat).
European Economic Integration: It Was All in Balassa. In R. Grawe and A.
Inotai (eds.), Trade, Integration and Transition, World Bank and Institute
for World Economics, Budapest, 2002.
De Seattle å Doha. Reflets et Perspectives de la Vie Economique XLI (2002)
EMU in the Early Years: Differences and Credibility. In M. Buti and A. Sapir
(eds.), EMU and Economic Policy in Europe: The Challenge of the Early
Years, Edward Elgar, Aldershot, 2002 (with Marco Buti).
Who’s Afraid of Globalization? Domestic Adjustment in Europe and America.
In R.B. Porter, P. Sauvé, A. Subramanian and A.B. Zampetti (eds.), Efficiency,
Equity, and Legitimacy: The Multilateral Trading System at the Millennium,
Harvard University and Brookings Institution Press, 2001.
Domino Effects in Western European Trade, 1960-92. European Journal of
Political Economy 17 (2001) 377 388.
EC Regionalism at the Turn of the Millennium: Towards a New paradigm?
The World Economy 23 (2000) 1135-1148.

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Trade Regionalism in Europe: Towards an Integrated Approach. Journal of
Common Market Studies. March 2000. Reprinted in J. von Hagen and M.
Widgren (eds.), Regionalism in Europe: Geometries and Strategies After
2000, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston/ Dordrecht/London, 2001.
The Impact of the Single Market on the Big European Countries. In P. Coffey
(ed.), Europe-Toward the Next Enlargement, International Handbooks on
Economic Integration, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 2000 (with
Pierre Buigues).
L’lmpact du Marché unique sur les grands Pays européens: Spécialisation,
Efficacité et Concurrence. Revue d’Economie Politique 109 (1999) 177-197
(with Pierre Buigues).
The General Agreement on Trade in Services: From 1994 to the Year 2000.
Journal of World Trade 33 (1999) 51-66.
Optimum Electoral Areas: Should Europe Adopt a Single Election Date?
European Economic Review 43 (1999) 1595-1619 (with Khalid Sekkat).
The Role of Articles 37 and 90 ECT in the Integration of EC Markets: The Case
of Utilities. In T. Cottier and P. Mavroidis (eds.), State Trading in the 21st
Century, World Trade Forum Series No. 1, Michigan University Press, Ann
Arbor, 1998.
The Political Economy of EC Regionalism. European Economic Review 42
(1998) 717-732.
Labour Market Effects of Trade with LDCs in Europe. In M. Dewatripont, A.
Sapir and K. Sekkat (eds.), Trade and Jobs in Europe, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 1999.
Economic Evaluation of the Internal Market. European Economy, Reports
and Studies No. 4, 1996 (with Pierre Buigues and Jordi Gual).
The Effects of Europe’s Internal Market Program on Production and Trade: A
First Assessment. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 132 (1996) 457-475.
The Harmonization of Social Policies: Lessons from European Integration. In
J. Bhagwati and R. Hudec (eds.), Fair Trade and Harmonization, MIT Press,
Cambridge (Mass.), 1996.
The Interaction between Labour Standards and International Trade Policy.
The World Economy 18 (1995) 791-803.
Is a European Hard Core Credible? A Statistical Analysis. Kyklos 49 (1996)
105-117 (with Alexis Jacquemin).
Exchange Rate Regimes and Trade Prices: Does the EMS Matter? Journal of
International Economics (1995) 75-94 (with Khalid Sekkat).

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The Impact of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on European Union Trade. CEPR
Discussion Paper No. 1041, CEPR, London, 1994 (with Khalid Sekkat and
Axel Weber).
The Europe Agreements: Implications for Trade Laws and Institutions.
Lessons from Hungary. In L.A. Winters (ed.), Foundations of an Open
Economy: Trade Laws and Institutions for Eastern Europe, CEPR, London,
The Logic of EC Commercial and Industrial Policy Revisited in 1992. In M.
Dewatripont and V. Ginsburgh (eds.), European Economic Integration: A
Challenge in Changing World, Contributions to Economic Analysis 224,
North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1994 (with Alexis Jacquemin).
Services Trade. In D. Greenaway and L.A. Winters (eds.), Surveys in
International Trade, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1994 (with Chantal Winter).
What Future for European Growth? International Economic Insights (1994)
15-17 (with Khalid Sekkat).
Market Services and European Integration: Issues and Challenges. European
Economy, Special Issue on “Market Services and European Integration”, 1993,
ix-xx (with Pierre Buigues).
Sectoral Dimension. European Economy, Special Issue on “Market Services
and European Integration”, 1993, 23-39.
The Structure of Services in Europe: A Conceptual Framework. European
Economy, Special Issue on “Market Services and European Integration”, 1993,
83-97. Reprinted as Chapter 2 in B. Hoekman (ed.), The WTO and Trade in
Services, Volume I, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2012.
Emploi et Chömage: Vingt Ans d’Expérience suédoise. Economie
Internationale (1993) 91-114 (with Philippe Bouyoux).
Le Régionalisme et la Nouvelle Théorie du Commerce international Sonnent-
ils le Glas du GATT? Politique Etrangére (1993) 277 293.
Regionalism and the New Theory of International Trade: Do the Bells Toll for
the GATT? A European Outlook. The World Economy (1993) 423-438.
European Competition Policy in Manufacturing and Services: A Two-Speed
Approach? Oxford Review of Economic Policy (1993) 113-132 (with Pierre
Buigues and Alexis Jacquemin).
Les Politiques industrielles de la Communauté. Revue d’Economie
Industrielle (1993) 242-260 (with Pierre Buigues).

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From Fragmentation to Restructuring of Service Markets in the European
Community (in Spanish). In C. Martin (ed.), Politica Industrial, Teorie y
Practica, Economistas Libros, Madrid, 1992.
Community Industrial Policies. In P. Nicolaides (ed.), Industrial Policy in the
European Communities: A Necessary Response to Economic Integration?,
Martinus Nijhoff, Amsterdam, 1992 (with Pierre Buigues).
Regional Integration in Europe, Economic Journal (1992) 1491-1506.
A Code of Conduct for Inter-State Trade. Centre for Economic Performance
Occasional Paper No. 3, 1992, London School of Economics, London (with
Richard Layard).
Commerce et Transition vers le Marché dans l’ex-URSS. Revue d’Economie
Financiére (1992) 129-150 (with Jean Pisani-Ferry).
New Issues in the Uruguay Round: Services, TRIMs and TRIPs. European
Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings (1992) 509-518 (with David
Inter-State Economic Relations in the Former Soviet Union. CEPS Working
Document No. 63, 1992, CEPS, Brussels (with Daniel Gros and Jean Pisani-
Europe 1992: The External Trade Implications. International Economic
Journal (1992) 1-15.
Trade Policies of Belgium. In D. Salvatore (ed.), International Handbook of
National Trade Policies, Greenwood Press, New York, 1992, 275-283.
Europe Post-1992: Internal and External Liberalisation. American Economic
Review, Papers and Proceedings (1991) 166-170 (with Alexis Jacquemin).
Le Commerce International des Services Audiovisuels: Une Source de Conflits
entre la Communauté Européenne et les Etats-Unis. In G. Vandersanden
(ed.), L’Espace Audiovisuel Européen, Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles,
Brussels, 1991, 163-170.
The Internal and External Opening-Up of the Single Community Market:
Efficiency Gains, Adjustment Costs and New Community Instruments. The
International Spectator (1991) 29-48 (with Alexis Jacquemin).
Competition and Imports in the European Market. In L.A. Winters and A.
Venables (eds.), European Integration: Trade and Industry, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, 1991, 82-91 (with Alexis Jacquemin).
The Discipline of Imports in the European Market. In J. de Melo and A. Sapir
(eds.), Trade Theory and Economic Reform – North, South and East, Basil
Blackwell, Oxford, 1991 (with Alexis Jacquemin).

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Monitoring European Integration: The Impact of Eastern Europe. A CEPR
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