Biographical Highlights

Pierre Werner, 1969 © Archives familiales Pierre Werner

Itinéraires luxembourgeois et européens: Pierre Werner’s biographical highlights


Pierre Werner was born of Luxembourgish parents in Saint-André, near Lille, France, on 29 December 1913. A few months later, following the start of the First World War, the family returned to Luxembourg. [1]

After primary school, he attended a secondary school specialising in industry and business so that he would be well prepared to take over the family business from his father. Pupils at this school received intensive English lessons, which was unusual at that time. Werner continued his education in a multicultural environment that was typical for Luxembourg, and in addition to the country’s three languages (Luxembourgish, French and German), he also learnt Italian. His extensive language skills opened up new intellectual horizons, enabled him to structure his thoughts clearly and gave him a good understanding of the language and culture of those he came into contact with. Encouraged by his teachers, who were keen to see this gifted pupil devote more time to the humanities side of his studies, Werner retook his final year, this time specialising in Latin, at the Lycée classique, where he obtained his baccalaureate. In 1934, he enrolled in the higher preparatory course in law in Luxembourg. One year later, he joined the Faculty of Law in Paris, at the same time attending courses at the École libre des sciences politiques (1935-1937). In January 1938, Werner successfully submitted his thesis in law in Luxembourg.

From early on, Pierre Werner was an active member of student associations, taking on major responsibilities. In Luxembourg, he was elected as president of the Association of Catholic University Students (‘Akademikerverein’) from 1935 to 1937, and in 1937 he became the Vice-president of the international ‘Pax Romana’ movement. During his time in

Paris, Werner lived at the Biermans-Lapôtre Foundation, where he was involved in the activities of the ‘Cercle historique’ (History Club) run by fellow Luxembourgers Joseph Guill and Georges Bourg with the aim of encouraging students from Luxembourg to learn about the history of their country. It was here that Werner joined the European ranks of Catholic thinkers and forged useful links with several prominent figures. He regularly attended lectures by Jacques Maritain and became very familiar with the ideas of this mentor of the Christian Democracy movement. His humanist beliefs also spurred him to offer practical help to those in need, and he joined the ‘Équipes sociales’ run by Robert Garric.

In his studies, Werner was particularly interested in company management and private finance. He forged strong ties with his teachers Jacques Rueff and Wilfrid Baumgartner (both future French Finance Ministers), Charles Rist and André Siegfried, all of whom influenced his intellectual development and sparked his interest in the study of economic and monetary phenomena. In Paris he met another Luxembourg native, Robert Schuman, who at that time was a member of the French National Assembly and who was to become an iconic figure in the launch of post-war European integration. Schuman showed him round the Palais Bourbon and tried to give him a taste for politics. Werner did not yet feel that he was ready, because

‘if a young man wants to be more than just an average politician, he needs to be all the more conscientious and hard-working in preparing for his political career’.[2]
As a young barrister in Luxembourg, in 1938 Pierre Werner secured a six-month

internship at the Banque Générale de Luxembourg (BGL). With the outbreak of the Second World War, he ended up staying there until 1944, receiving on-the-job training in the banking profession. His work in the general secretariat of the BGL gave him the opportunity to closely monitor developments in the legislation introduced by the German occupiers and the effects it had on Luxembourg society. Approached by the Martin network of the French Resistance, Werner managed to pass on a range of information to the Luxembourg government in exile in

London, including a report on the monetary, financial and banking situation in the country in 1942.[3] As he revealed in his memoirs, he escaped Nazi persecution both because of Deutsche Bank’s financial interests in the Luxembourg bank and also thanks to the efforts of Hermann J. Abs, a banker and Chairman of the Board of Directors, who ensured that Luxembourgers who refused to enrol in Nazi organisations would avoid the worst consequences of their actions. [4] The Werner family was not spared by the war, however: Pierre’s younger brother, was forcibly conscripted for ‘labour service’ (Arbeitsdienst) and died at a labour camp in Eastern Prussia on 15 January 1945.

After the Liberation, the Secretary-general of the government, Léon Schaus, recruited Werner as an attaché to the Ministry of Finance. Prime Minister and Finance Minister Pierre Dupong involved this young expert in the major issues of the time. In 1945, he was tasked with carrying out a study of the reorganization of the banking system in Luxembourg. Subsequently he was appointed banking Commissioner. In this capacity he was involved in the creation of an authority to organize and regulate the credit market and contributed to the establishment of international financial relations. He was associated with the operations for the reintroduction of the franc, the refloating of banking activities, and the reestablishment of the main Luxembourg state bank, the Banque et Caisse d’Épargne de l’État. He represented Luxembourg in international negotiations, particularly in Switzerland and within the BLEU and the Benelux. As adviser to Prime Minister Pierre Dupong on financial affairs, Werner alsotookpartinmultilateraldealingsrelatingtodefence,including NATO,theabortive European Defence Community (EDC), and the Western European Union (WEU). At a very early stage he became familiar with the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

In 1947, the government gave him the task of negotiating a $12.7 million loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) to rebuild the country. Luxembourg was one of the first four applicants for aid, despite the fact that at this time, the

IBRD (which had not yet established any real rules of operation) had intended these loans to go towards relieving balance-of-payments difficulties rather than internal budget expenses. Nevertheless, following three months of intense negotiations in Washington, Werner, with the support of Ambassador Hugues Le Gallais, successfully secured the loan. [5]

Werner had been aware of the importance of European issues since his university days, and his commitment to European unification gradually began to take firm shape. From 1949 he became convinced ‘of the urgent need for the countries of Western Europe ‘to undertake the economic and political construction of a united Europe’. His

‘experience of working in the international arena, particularly an awareness of the weakness and the divided state of Europe, made it almost an intellectual obligation’ . He later took an active role alongside Jean Monnet in the Action Committee for the

United States of Europe (ACUSE).[6]
In 1949, as government adviser and acting Secretary to the Council of Ministers,

Werner was brought into direct contact with the country’s general affairs and European integration strategy. He worked closely with the Prime Minister, who increasingly regarded this competent, meticulous expert as the best person to succeed him as Minister for Finance. This duly came about on 29 December 1953, the day of Werner’s 40th birthday, when he was appointed Minister for Finance (and the Armed Forces) in the government formed by Joseph Bech following the unexpected death of Pierre Dupong.

This was the beginning of a long career as a statesman, in which public finance played a prominent role. In his first budget speech to the Chamber of Deputies, he outlined the principles underpinning his political approach, to which he would remain committed for his entire life: for Werner, safeguarding Luxembourg’s financial stability and budget equilibrium, adding a human dimension to law enforcement and guaranteeing social justice were vital for the creation of solid foundations on which to build the country’s independence.[7]

Werner headed the list of candidates for the Christian Social People’s Party (CSV) in the parliamentary election on 1 February 1959 and was duly elected Minister of State (Prime Minister). For twenty years – from 1959 to 1974 and from 1979 to 1984 – he led the coalition cabinets that his party formed with either the Liberals or the Socialists. His role as Prime Minister was also combined with other ministerial portfolios in what were seen as priority areas for the country that was constantly innovating and developing. He served as Minister for Finance (1959-1964 and 1969-1974), for the Treasury (1964-1969 and 1979-1984) and for Foreign affairs and Justice (1964-1967), as well as for the Civil Service (1967-1969) and for Cultural affairs (1969-1974 and 1979-1984).

Werner turned his attention to major projects with a view to making Luxembourg a forward-looking country and a true international platform. The development programme for the ‘European quarter’ on the Kirchberg (1961) was a major trump card in the country’s hand during the ‘battle for the seats’ in 1965. He worked hard to diversify the economy, especially focusing on consolidating Luxembourg’s transformation from a banking centre to an international financial centre from the 1960s onwards, nurturing the idea for a Luxembourg shipping flag, developing the audiovisual sector and, in particular, setting up the satellite project.

For Luxembourg, European political and economic integration took precedence over all other international concerns and Werner was associated from the very outset with the major issues. The merger of the executive bodies of the ECSC, Euratom and the EEC in 1965, the choice of Luxembourg as one of the permanent capitals of the Community institutions, the development of the Kirchberg European quarter, the 1966 Luxembourg Compromise and the 1970 Werner Report that sketched the outlines of EMU are just some of the achievements to which Werner made a vital contribution.[8] In the mid-1960s, in his efforts to affirm Luxembourg’s position of leadership on the international stage, Werner played, alongside the

eminent legal expert Pierre Pescatore, Secretary-general of the Foreign Ministry, a part in developing an independent diplomatic service based on national intellectual elites, continuing the work begun by Joseph Bech at the dawn of the Second World War. [9]

As a proponent of dialogue and rapprochement, Werner was also involved in other issues – the strengthening of the institutions, political cooperation, enlargement, the reform of the CAP and international relations – when Luxembourg held the rotating presidency of the Council of the EC.[10] When Europe experienced difficulties, this little country was able to make a decisive contribution to breaking deadlocks and proved to be an essential mediator, facilitating dialogue between its larger neighbours and partners. The 1966 ‘Luxembourg Compromise’, which brought an end to the empty chair crisis, is a clear illustration of this role. He adopted an approach which he saw in theoretical terms as a method for any fruitful presidency:

‘I regarded my presidency as an opportunity, primarily, for creating an atmosphere and a climate of negotiation which took account of the delicate sensitivities of partners aspiring to reach agreement. The agreement must not leave any losers in a squabble over minutiae of language which may disguise a persistent under- lying disagreement’. [11]

At that time, Werner’s European commitment and mastery of the art of consensus gave rise to the idea that he might one day stand for the post of President of the Commission of the Communities. It was only a rumour, as the Luxembourg Prime Minister never really considered giving up his national elected office.[12]

The election on 26 May 1974 resulted in a new coalition formed by the Democratic Party (DP) and the Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party (LSAP), under the premiership of Gaston Thorn. The CSV, which had led all the country’s post-war governments, went into opposition. This political upheaval coincided with the beginnings of the painful steel crisis.

Werner was elected as chairman of the CSV party’s group in the Chamber of Deputies. He worked to rebuild his party and encouraged it to pursue an approach inspired

‘to some extent by the British tradition of ‘Her Majesty’s loyal opposition’ – respecting any ministerial management driven by concern for the welfare of all Luxembourgers, and proposing original solutions (using watertight legislative techniques) as alternatives to the options put forward by the government and the majority’ .[13]

As leader of the opposition, Werner focused on key issues for domestic policy. He pushed the CSV to play an active role in the consensus-based management of the steel crisis and worked for social dialogue. One of the results of this approach was the establishment of the “steel tripartite”, which subsequently developed into the “Luxembourg model for social consultation”. The government also adopted two mechanisms – for economic diversification and for the creation of the Société nationale de crédit et d’investissement (National Credit and Investment Company, or SNCI) – which Werner had recommended years before to boost the country’s competitiveness.[14] At the same time, renowned for his expertise, Werner remained a reference for politicians of all stripes.[15] Finance Minister Raymond Vouel (Socialist) consulted him on budget issues such as the crisis budget and public spending, and Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Gaston Thorn (Liberal) discussed strategic issues and international policy questions with him.

Werner’s longevity in power and his European commitment enabled him to forge lasting relationships with many eminent figures and to be involved in various transnational governance networks, communities of experts, and influential groups. He also took an active role, alongside Jean Monnet and Robert Triffin, in the Action Committee for the United States of Europe (ACUSE), the European League for Economic Cooperation (ELEC) and the Christian Democrat International, via conferences run by universities and banking

organisations and in the media. His favourite subjects remained EMU and political union. Together with Jacques Santer, Werner also played a part in the establishment of the European People’s Party (EPP), which was founded on 8 July 1976 in Luxembourg. He wrote the economic and social chapters of the EPP’s electoral manifesto for the first European Parliament elections by direct universal suffrage in 1979.

The parliamentary election on 10 June 1979 saw Pierre Werner return to power as leader of a coalition government between the CSV and the Liberals. The new Minister of State received more individual votes than his predecessor, Gaston Thorn, who became Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister and would soon become the first Luxembourger to serve as President of the European Commission (1981-1985). The CSV also won the European elections and secured three of the six seats allocated to Luxembourg.

From 1979 to 1984, the Werner government faced major challenges, including the resolution of the steel crisis with its major social consequences, economic diversification and societal reforms. Realising that as Prime Minister he would have to be closely involved in balancing conflicting interests, Werner gave up the time-consuming portfolio of Finance. He retained his role as Treasury Minister, however (responsible for monetary and credit policy), thereby continuing a tradition that still holds true until when the last Government took office (December 2013): Luxembourg Prime Ministers always had monetary issues as part of their responsibilities. He also chose the portfolio of Cultural affairs. His main achievements in this field were the creation of a National Cultural Fund and the Language Law, which enshrined the three-language model as the basis of Luxembourg’s national identity.[16] Jacques Santer, Werner’s long-standing colleague and leader of the country’s main political party, was appointed Minister for Finance. During the 1979-1984 term, several reshuffles took place, including the entry into government of Jean-Claude Juncker, then aged just 28, as Junior Minister for Employment.

Halfway through its term, the Werner government was faced with a serious and unexpected crisis. On 22 February 1982, the Belgian government took the unilateral decision to devalue its currency. This had a major impact on Luxembourg’s fiscal policy, which was designed to combat inflation and promote full employment. Although the idea of withdrawing from the monetary union with Belgium was raised in some quarters, Luxembourg chose a more moderate course of action.

‘Monetary decisions are always taken on the spot and depending on the economic, social and financial conditions of a national community at a given time. The main thing in a monetary union is that the interests of one of the partners should not be sacrificed. […] Discussions on a monetary proposal are always tricky since they can give rise to positive or negative evaluations which, by implication, can have a negative impact on the very aim of a monetary policy, which is stability’. [17]

In these circumstances, the Werner government successfully redefined the economic and monetary doctrine of the BLEU, and in May 1983 it adopted the Act establishing the Luxembourg Monetary Institute (IML), which had been on the agenda of the Chamber of Deputies for several years.[18] The IML operated until 1998, when Luxembourg opened a full central bank as a member of Economic and Monetary Union.

The Luxembourg government focused its diversification strategy on two innovative areas that would become the country’s key drivers for growth: the financial centre and the audiovisual industry. [19] Werner had a thorough knowledge of the financial centre, which had gradually taken shape since the 1960s under the leadership of his successive governments. Ongoing improvements to its legislative and institutional infrastructure and a policy of specialisation (in insurance and reinsurance, consultancy firms and training) strengthened its international competitiveness. Over time, the financial centre became a real- world laboratory for the single currency, with the first Eurobond issue and the implementation

of the public and private European unit of account. When the Werner Report was published in 1970, Pierre Werner set up an informal think tank for the financial centre, composed of experts from Luxembourg and abroad (including Robert Triffin, Fernand Collin, Edmond Israel, Raymond Kirsch and Jean Blondeel), which anticipated future trends and sketched out various development scenarios. [20]

Bolstered by the success of the Compagnie Luxembourgeoise de Télédiffusion (CLT) since the 1950s, the Werner government decided to target what appeared to be a promising niche market: satellites and telecommunications. Given that the European audiovisual sector was only just beginning to gain momentum, this was a significant challenge, with considerable economic implications (the advertising market) and cultural implications (the broadcast language and the culture portrayed). To guarantee Luxembourg’s long-term position in this sector, the Werner government was of the view that “only a Luxembourg-run satellite would be satisfactory”. This firm condition gave rise to a bitter political and diplomatic clash with France and Germany doing their utmost to block the plan. The excessive demands of some US technological and financial partners also created an obstacle to the implementation of the plan. Ultimately this initiative only came to fruition during Santer’s first premiership in 1985, with the creation of the Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), which has now become the world’s second leading satellite operator.

In July 1984, despite his party’s victory in the parliamentary election and his own popularity with the electorate, Pierre Werner chose to withdraw from political life.

‘Seeing politics as a sacred calling, Pierre Werner fully embodied a sense of personal and political integrity that was never questioned by anyone, including his fiercest opponents’. [21]
He remained active in public affairs, particularly focusing his energies on the

promotion of EMU and the euro, notably as joint chair, alongside Raymond Barre, of the

Lyon-based ECU Institute, a think-tank composed of inter- national economic and financial experts that was set up in 1992 to promote the European currency. He also retained an active interest in the development of the media and the audiovisual sector, especially through the project for the Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), which he chaired the board from 1989 to 1996, and then becoming honorary chairman. In 1992, he published his memoirs, entitled ‘Itinéraires luxembourgeois et européens’.

His wife Henriette Pescatore, together with their five children, provided invaluable support for Pierre Werner throughout his lengthy career. With discretion and efficiency, she was closely involved throughout her life in a number of causes that were particularly important to her, including the provision of schooling for the children of Luxembourg’s fairground workers and, alongside the famous banker Edmond Israel, encouraging interfaith dialogue between Jews and Christians.

In recognition of Werner’s lifelong commitment to a united Europe, he received the Robert Schuman Gold Medal in 1971 and the Prince of Asturias Award in 1998, sharing the latter award with his disciple Jacques Santer for their “contribution to the process of European monetary integration that has culminated in the creation of the euro”.

Pierre Werner passed away in Luxembourg City on 24 June 2002.

The former EU Commission President Jacques Santer – a long time collaborator of Pierre Werner and his successor as Prime Minister of Luxembourg in 1984 – , said of him:

‘It is rare to find politicians that can rightly claim to have left a decisive mark on the country ty were called to serve and therefore successfully steered the course of events’. [22]


[1] Itinéraires luxembourgeois et européens. Évolutions et souvenirs: 1945-1985 is the title of the memoirs published by Pierre Werner in 1992 with Éditions Saint-Paul de Luxembourg

[roughly translated in English as ‘Routes through Luxembourg and Europe. Developments and memories: 1945-1985’].
[2] P. Werner (1934) ‘AV et la politique’ in Association catholique des étudiants luxembourgeois [Catholic Association of Luxembourg Students] (ed) Revue Academia (national issue), p. 25.

[3] ‘Rapport sur la situation monétaire, financière et bancaire luxembourgeoise de 1942’ drawn up by Pierre Werner in 1943 and sent to the government in exile in London through the Martin network. Centre for Documentation and Research into the Resistance, Luxembourg. Subsequently published in Rappel – Organe de la Ligue luxembourgeoise des prisonniers et déportés politiques, Luxembourg, 1(1994).
[4] ‘Thanks to my job at the Banque Générale, in which the Deutsche Bank had taken a major holding, I was able to escape Nazi persecution. Mr Weicker and I refused to join the ‘’Heim ins Reich’’ movement despite the insistent urgings of a director who had been seconded by the German bank [our translation]. P. Werner (1992, I) Itinéraires, pp.15-16.
[5] Telegram from Pierre Werner to Pierre Dupong (New York, 22 July 1947). Archives Nationales de Luxembourg (ANLux)/AE-09283.
[6] The Action Committee for the United States of Europe (ACUSE) (also known as the Monnet Committee), founded on 13 October 1955 by Jean Monnet, assembled trade union and political forces in the six Community countries (representing over 10 million unionised workers). The committee held its first session in Paris on 18 January 1956. Its overriding objective was to help bring the treaties for the Common Market and Euratom to a successful conclusion. The treaties signed in Rome on 25 March 1957 were voted by the six parliaments in the same year.
[7] P. Werner (1954) ‘Le discours budgétaire de 1954 prononcé le 11 février 1954’ in Les discours budgétaires de 1954 à 1963. Recueil publié à l’occasion du dixième anniversaire de la nomination de M. Pierre Werner aux fonctions de Ministre des Finances. 29.XII.1953-

29.XII.1963 (Luxembourg: Ministry of Finance), p. 6.
[8] On these matters see especially: N.P. Ludlow (2001) ‘The Eclipse of the Extremes: Demythologising the Luxembourg Compromise’ in W. Loth (dir) Crises and Compromises: The European Project 1963-9 (Baden-Baden: Nomos), pp 260-264; C. Barthel (2017) ‘Trois chefs de la diplomatie, un défi commun. Joseph Bech, Eugène Schaus et Pierre Werner face à la question du siège européen à Luxembourg (1952-1965/67)’, Nos cahiers (3/4), pp. 29-151; J.-M. Majerus (2011) ‘Pierre Werner & Gaston Thorn. La perception de la politique européenne au Luxembourg dans les années 1970’ in S. Schirmann (dirs) Quelle architecture pour quelle Europe? Des projets d’une Europe unie à l’Union européenne (1945-1992) (Brussels : P.I.E.- Peter Lang), pp. 145-163; C. Barthel (2008) ‘Le difficile transfert de la BEI vers le Grand-Duché de Luxembourg’, in É. Bussière, M. Dumoulin, É. Willaert (dirs), La banque de l’Union européenne. La BEI, 1958-2008 (Luxembourg: Imp. Centrale), pp.261- 286.
[9] See C. Schroeder (2014) L’émergence de la politique étrangère du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg vue à travers le Ministère des Affaires étrangères (1945-1973), PhD Thesis (unpublished), University of Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium).
[10] Since the signing of the Treaty of Rome, Luxembourg has held the rotating presidency of the Council of Ministers on twelve occasions: in the first half of 1960, 1963, 1966, 1969, 1972 and 1976, in the second half of 1980 and 1985, in the first half of 1991,in the second half of 1997, in the first half of 2005 and in the second half of 2015. Between 1960 and 1972, and in 1980, these presidencies were exclusively managed by various Werner governments. [11] P. Werner (1992, II) Itinéraires, p.79. See also J. Delors (1993) ‘Le Luxembourg et ses présidences du Conseil européen’ in R.Kirt and A.Meisch (eds) Innovation-Integration, Festschrift für Pierre Werner/Mélanges pour Pierre Werner (Luxembourg : Éditions Saint- Paul), p.327.

[12] K. Dyson (2015) ‘Mastering Small-state Diplomacy: Pierre Werner in the History of European Monetary Union’, in E. Danescu, S.Muñoz (dirs) Pierre Werner and Europe: His Approach, Action and Legacy (Brussels: P.I.E.- Peter Lang Publishers), pp.19-26; G. Trausch (dirs) (2003) Histoire du Luxembourg. Le destin européen d’un ‘petit pays’ (Toulouse: Privat) [13] P. Werner (1992, I) Itinéraires, p.300.

[14] G. Trausch (2000) L’Arbed dans la société luxembourgeoise (Luxembourg : Arbed SA Communications and Imp. V. Buck), pp.73 sqq.
[15] It is also worth noting that during his time in opposition, Pierre Werner served as a member of Luxembourg City Council, where he saw the realisation of one of the plans he had put forward in the early 1950s, when he first stood for election – the Grund lift, linking the lower and upper districts of Luxembourg City.

[16] ‘Loi du 24 février 1984 sur le régime des langues’ in Mémorial, 27.02.1984. According to the law ‘the national language of the Luxembourg people is Luxembourgish. The administrative and legal languages are French, German and Luxembourgish”.
[17] ‘Statement by Prime Minister Pierre Werner on Luxembourg monetary policy’ in Documentation bulletin, 3(1983) (Luxembourg: Information and Press Service, Ministry of State), pp.8-9, here p.9. See also Interview with Jacques

[18] On 15 March 1979, the monetary status of Luxembourg was clearly laid down for the first time in law. The new Act provided for the participation of the Luxembourg franc in the definition of the ECU and gave the government the prerogative to set applicable exchange mechanisms. The Act also provided for the creation of a new institution, known as the Luxembourg Monetary Institute, responsible for monetary and credit policy in the country and for representing Luxembourg within the newly created EMS. The proposal for the creation of this new institution was submitted to the Chamber of Deputies in November 1981 but was delayed because of disputes over the status (public or private) of its staff.

[19] L. Moyse, M. Meiers and M. Maquil (2014) The architects of Luxembourg’s financial industry: personal accounts on the origins and growth of the international financial centers (Luxembourg: Éditions Saint-Paul, Luxembourg); S. Döry (2016) ‘The role of elites in the co- evolution of international financial markets and financial centres: The case of Luxembourg’ in Competition & Change, 1, pp.21-36; C. Forrestier (2011) The untold story of Astra, Europe’s leading satellite company (Berlin: Springer). See also Interview with Edmond Israel (Luxembourg, 27 August 2010) and Interview with Luc Frieden (Luxembourg, 28 July 2010) (home page) and (main page), accessed on 6 March 2018.

[20] See E. Danescu (2016) ‘Pierre Werner, a Visionary European and Consensus Builder’ in K. Dyson and I. Maes (eds) Architects of the Euro. Intellectuals in the making of European Monetary Union (London: Oxford University Press), pp.93-116.
[21] E. Hennicot-Schoepges (2003) Le discours de la ministre de la Culture, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche lors de l’inauguration de l’Institut Pierre Werner, Luxembourg, 12.10.2003 at (home page), date accessed 6 March 2018.

[22] J. Santer (1993) ‘Vorwort’ in R. Kirt, A. Meisch (dirs) Innovation-Integration. Festschrift für Pierre Werner. Mélanges pour Pierre Werner (Luxembourg : Éditions Saint-Paul), p.15.